Golf is a sport that is measured primarily in Yards or paces that are 3 feet or 36 inches in length. Meters is also used but Yards seems to be the favorite, but if you have to convert Meters to Yards, multiply the meter number by 1.09 or 1.1 (150 meters x 1.1 = 165 yards). So figuring out how far you have to get to the hole was and still is something relatively easy to figure out.
Going way back, other than taking permanent markings like trees, rocks etc... they always had either a small tree, plant or bush in the rough, usually on both sides of the fairway but not always, then eventually a white stick in the ground pointing upward were used as a Yard Marker indicating 150 Yards to the centre of the green, 100 & 200 yard markers appeared shortly there after.
All you have to do is pace off how far you are behind or ahead of either Yard Marker and choose your club, now there lies the question, more on that forthcoming. As for the Yardage Markers, things have become a little more detailed, here we go.....
Soon enough they started putting 3 simple Fairway Markers to help figure out how far you were from the centre of the green. White was the first, and that was the classic 150 Yards to the centre of the green, then came Blue indicating 200 Yards and Red for 100 Yards. These markers were either a simple Stick in the ground pointing upward, or a simple large plack flat with the fairway.
Now with technology, things have exploded. Today most Sprinkler Heads that are on a golf course indicate how far you are from that sprinkler head to the centre of the green, add GPS and voila, incredibly detailed accuracy, to the inch in some cases. That is what you see when you watch golf on TV, those little books they keep flipping open to know exactly how far they have to do whatever they need to do, carry/avoid a hazard/bunker, to the pin etc, to the yard, and as the late Bruce Edwards, Tom Watson's longtime good friend & caddy said, "...when Tom was on I'd give him half yards, you've got 132 and a half yards." That's what it is and if I'm not mistaken that book, or idea for it, came from Jack Nicklaus, because he always wanted to know exactly how many yards he had.
Now back to 'Here Lies The Question'
How far do I hit my clubs? Easiest way is to visit a Golf Simulator and hit every club. When you hit the club of choice the way you want write down the yardage for that club on a card, do the same for each club and keep it in your golf bag, that's your caddy. Basic guidelines between each club for men: 8 to 12 Yards, for women: 6 to 8 sometimes 10 Yards. IE: I hit my 7 iron 165 Yards, my 6 should go 175 and my 8 155 ish. This is a template, it will change through time and if you find yourself in-between clubs, like I could get there with an 8 but I really need to hit it, take the longer club, the 7, chock down on the grip an inch or so and swing nicely.
What It Is and What It Does.... well it looks like you've got 137 Yards to the flag...... enjoy.